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Secondary Frequency Control of Dual-Port Grid Forming Control
Grid-forming converters are widely envisioned to be the cornerstone of future converter-dominated power systems. However, standard grid forming (GFM) control strategies assume fully controllable source with enough headroom behind the converter and only implicitly address renewable generation limits through the converter limits. This can lead to instabilities on time scales of both primary and secondary frequency control and jeopardize the safe and reliable operation of electric power systems. In this work, we leverage the recently proposed dual-port GFM control that maps power imbalances in the grid to the power generation interfaced by the power converter. We show that this mechanism allows for considering and transparently addressing limits of the renewable generation (e.g., solar photovoltaics and wind) in primary and secondary frequency control. We illustrate that renewable generation using dual-port GFM control can directly integrate into prevailing secondary control methods such as automatic generation control (AGC). Moreover, we discuss limitations of standard AGC when one or more areas of a power system are dominated by renewable generation and propose an anti-windup strategy to address power generation limits of renewables. Finally, we verify our findings in high fidelity simulation.