Full Program »
Grid Reinforcement Costs With Increasing Penetrations of Distributed Energy Resources
More and more distributed energy resources (DERs), like decentralised photovoltaic (PV), battery energy storage systems (BESS), electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), are installed in the distribution grids (DGs). With increasing penetrations, these DERs will require grid reinforcements in the DGs. This study analyses the required grid reinforcement costs for six medium voltage (MV)-grids with underlying low voltage (LV)-grids and different characteristics. Therefore, increasing penetrations of PV, BESS, HPs and EVs are added to residential loads of the grids. To quantify the potential of their flexibility to reduce the required grid reinforcement costs, the required grid reinforcement is determined for a reference and an optimised operation of the DERs. The results show that integrating HPs leads to the highest marginal and absolute costs and that HPs are the main driver of the costs when all DERs are integrated simultaneously. The optimised operation of the DERs can reduce the grid reinforcement costs for all simulated scenarios. However, the extent to which the grid reinforcement can be reduced differs. For home charging of EVs, grid reinforcement can be nearly completely avoided with the optimised operation. For PV with BESS and HPs, reductions of 45.2% and 13.6% at a 100% penetration can be achieved, respectively. When all types of DERs are integrated simultaneously, it is possible to decrease the costs by 23.6% with the optimised operation.